Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Chapter 13: Medieval Africa



Summary

Africa is the world's second-largest continent. Its landscape includes rain forests, savannas, and deserts. Nearly all of Africa sits on a plateau. The Berbers of North Africa were the first people to cross the Sahara to trade with the people of West Africa. As trade increased, cities and rain forest kingdoms grew into powerful empires. These empires included Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Axum, and Zimbabwe. Arab traders invented boats called dhows that allowed them to travel along Africa's coast. Many of these traders settled in East African city-states, where Africans and Muslims exchanged ideas.

The growth of West African empires created a need for an organized system of government. This led to the creation of centralized governments ruled by kings. The kingdoms were divided into provinces and people were organized by clan.
Most Africans believed in one supreme god. Although practices varied from place to place, traditional African religions shared certain beliefs and provided a guide for living together. Islam played an important role in medieval Africa. In East Africa, Muslim and African influences blended together, creating a unique culture and language called Swahili. Islam advanced learning and influenced African art and architecture.

Bantu migrations helped shape many cultures in Africa south of the Sahara. As they migrated, the Bantu took their culture with them. They are the main reason people all across the continent of Africa share common ideas and traditions today. The family was the foundation of African society, and many people lived in extended families. For the most part, villages were matrilineal. Children were a very important part of the family and village. Griots preserved the oral history through teaching and storytelling. Art, music, and dance played important roles in the lives of Africans.

In Africa, Bantu chiefs raided neighboring villages for captives. Criminals and prisoners of war were also enslaved. These slaves remained in Africa with some sense of hope that they could be freed. The African slave trade changed when Muslims and Europeans began taking captives from the continent. Enslaved Africans transported their cultures with them in the African Diaspora. These rich cultures influenced many others, including our own.





Interactive Map - The Atlantic slave trade, 1500-1800





PowerPoint - African Kingoms


Monday, May 13, 2013

Chapter 15 Section 3 - Kingdoms and Crusades


Summary
     After William the Conqueror was crowned king of England in 1066, the cultures of the Normans and Anglo-Saxons mixed. The power of the English king increased during the rule of Henry II. King John's abuse of power led English nobles to draft the Magna Carta and set up a Parliament, which shared the king's powers. The French created their own parliament called the Estates-General.

     After the Mongols destroyed the Kievan Rus, the Slavs rebuilt the city of Moscow and founded a new Russian state headed by a czar. The city became the headquarters of the Eastern Orthodox Church and grew wealthy from trade.
In 1071 Muslim Turks defeated the Byzantines. Europe responded to the Byzantine emperor's cries for help with a series of Crusades. European crusaders captured Jerusalem, but despite early victories, and more than 200 years of fighting, the last Christian city fell to the Muslims in 1291. The Crusades positively impacted Europe by breaking down feudalism and increasing trade.



Spotlight Video Transcripts
Male Narrator: In 1187, a Muslim army batted at the gates of Jerusalem, united behind Saladin, the most powerful commander they had ever had. For four generations, the Holy City had been in the hands of the Christian infidel. Now Saladin was poised to reclaim Jerusalem for the Muslim world. Inside the Holy City the Christian population panicked. Monks hid their sacred icons. They had good reason to be terrified. Saladin was driven on by the terrible events of the first crusade, eight-eight years earlier. Following an appeal from the Catholic Church, the first crusaders had ripped Jerusalem from the heart of the Islamic world, slaughtering every living thing in the name of their Christian God.
Translation: The first crusader invasion of Jerusalem was horrific. A lot of blood was shed for no reason. The amount of bloodshed was not based on military needs, but rather, to create terror.
Male Narrator: Now Saladin had gathered his own terrifying army. He believed that soon Jerusalem and victory would be his. Islam could take its revenge for the first crusade. Jerusalem was at Saladin’s mercy. The loss of Jerusalem was a disaster for Richard and the Christians in Europe. The Pope immediately issued a decree. Jerusalem was to be recaptured at all costs. In Christianity’s darkest hour, Richard prepared to take on Saladin. Richard received a fabric cross that all crusaders pledged to wear until Jerusalem was back in Christian hands. After months at sea, in May 1191, Richard King of England sighted the Holy Land for the first time, and he descended on Acre. He seemed unstoppable. Christianity’s new holy warrior had brought his own brand of hell to the Orient. It was at Acre that Richard King of England earned the title Lion Heart.
Male Speaker: Victory at the siege of Acre was a great breakthrough for Richard. It meant that the Christians had been blessed by God. How else could they explain their victory? It also, in strategic terms, he knew would be a big step forward; it would help to break the power of Saladin; would help open the way to the Holy City of Jerusalem.  

*****

Today's Steps - May 13, 2013

"We Didn't Start The Fire" - Syllables
Create your "We Didn't Start The Fire" song
HMWK - Complete 1 verse


We will be using your songs later in the week!

We Didn't Start The Fire


Syllables - Notice the use of syllables in We Didn't Start The Fire. 

   2        2          2       1
Harry Truman, Doris Day

   1     2           2      1
Red China, Johnny Ray
   1      3            2           2
South Pacific, Walter Winchell,
  1      4 
Joe DiMaggio


  1      3                 2         2

Joe McCarthy, Richard Nixon
        4                4
Studebaker, Television
    1       3          1        3
North Korea, South Korea, 
     3           2
Marilyn Monroe


Create a list of important people, places, and events from Chapter 15 Section 3.  Find rhyming words first.  Keep track of how many syllables you are using.



History of the world between 1949 and 1989
 

1949

Harry Truman, Doris Day
Red China, Johnny Ray

South Pacific, Walter Winchell, 
Joe DiMaggio

1950

Joe McCarthy, Richard Nixon
Studebaker, Television

North Korea, South Korea, 
Marilyn Monroe

1951

Rosenbergs, H-bomb
Sugar Ray, Panmunjom

Brando, The King and I
And The Catcher In The Rye

1952

Eisenhower, Vaccine
England's got a new queen

Marciano, Liberace, 
Santayana goodbye

We didn't start the fire
It was always burning since the world's been turning
We didn't start the fire
No, we didn't light it
But we tried to fight it

1953

Joseph Stalin, Malenkov
Nasser and Prokofiev

Rockefeller, Campanella, 
Communist Bloc

1954

Roy Cohn
Juan Peron
Toscanini, Dacron

Dien Bien Phu Falls, 
Rock Around the Clock

1955

Einstein, James Dean,
Brooklyn's got a winning team

Davy Crockett, Peter Pan
Elvis Presley, Disneyland

1956

Bardot, Budapest
Alabama, Khrushchev

Princess Grace
Peyton Place

Trouble in the Suez

We didn't start the fire
It was always burning, since the world's been turning
We didn't start the fire
No, we didn't light it
But we tried to fight it

1957

Little Rock, Pasternak,
Mickey Mantle, Kerouac

Sputnik, Chou En-Lai,
Bridge On The River Kwai

1958

Lebanon, Charles de Gaulle,
California baseball

Starkweather homicides,
Children of Thalidomide

1959

Buddy Holly, Ben Hur
Space Monkey, Mafia

Hula Hoops, Castro
Edsel is a no-go

1960

U2, Syngman Rhee
payola and Kennedy

Chubby Checker, Psycho,
Belgians in the Congo

We didn't start the fire
It was always burning, since the world's been turning
We didn't start the fire
No, we didn't light it
But we tried to fight it

1961

Hemingway, Eichman
Stranger in a Strange Land

Dylan
Berlin
Bay of Pigs invasion

1962

Lawrence of Arabia
British Beatlemania

Ole Miss, John Glenn
Liston beats Patterson

1963

Pope Paul, Malcolm X
British Politician sex

J.F.K. blown away
What else do I have to say?

We didn't start the fire
It was always burning, since the world's been turning
We didn't start the fire
No, we didn't light it
But we tried to fight it

1964-1989

Birth control, Ho Chi Minh
Richard Nixon back again

Moonshot
Woodstock
Watergate, punk rock

Begin
Reagan

Palestine
Terror on the airline

Ayatollah's in Iran
Russians in Afghanistan

Wheel of Fortune, Sally Ride,
heavy metal, suicide

Foreign debts
Homeless Vets
AIDS, Crack, Bernie Goetz

Hypodermics on the shores
China's under martial law
Rock and roller, cola wars,
I can't take it anymore

We didn't start the fire
It was always burning, since the world's been turning
We didn't start the fire
No, we didn't light it
But we tried to fight it